The method for making pastrami dates as far back as the Byzantines, and in Romania curing meat with salt and spices remains a favorite way of dry-curing mutton and beef. Romanian Jews adopted this preparation, mainly for goose breast, which was served cold and thinly sliced as an appetizer. When Romanian Jews settled on New York's Lower East Side, beef was more plentiful and replaced goose as the protein of choice, and pastrami started to be served hot, as a sandwich, so that the local garment workers could eat it on the job. Making pastrami—from either the brisket or the navel, both tough, sinewy, cuts of beef—involves a series of processes: salting; rubbing with a mix of garlic, pepper, coriander, mustard seed, and sugar (among other seasonings); and smoking. The meat is then steamed until tender, and sliced, preferably by hand.