Grano arso pasta—nutty, smoky, and dark, made with 'burnt' wheat—is one of these traditions. Apulian chefs, farmers, and bakers have differing opinions on the exact origins of the ingredient, but it was most likely born from the ancient tradition of gleaning. Before planting the fields, farmers torched any remaining stubble from the previous year's crop to fertilize the soil and to control weeds, pests, and disease. Puglia was a feudal farming region and wealthy landowners allowed poor women and children to glean the fields of any grains not consumed by the fires. The scorched leavings were then ground into a smoky flour and incorporated into pastas and bread. Older generations of Italians saw grano arso as a reminder of hard times, and as living conditions improved in Puglia, most locals had all but forgotten the rustic ingredient.