Place 1 cup juice in a sterilized 1-qt. glass jar. Add yeast and cover with plastic wrap; secure with a rubber band. Let sit until foamy, 1–3 hours.
Meanwhile, heat ½ cup apple juice and honey in a 1-qt. saucepan over medium heat. Cook, stirring, until honey is dissolved, about 2 minutes; let cool. Transfer to a sanitized 2-gallon bucket; stir in remaining juice, plus cloves, cinnamon, star anise, vanilla bean and seeds, and orange zest. Stir in reserved yeast mixture, plus yeast nutrient and pectic enzyme; cover with lid and close the air lock. Let sit at room temperature (ideally 70°–75°) for 3 days. At this point, the fermentation process will have slowed and any sediment created during brewing will have settled to the bottom of the bucket.
Using a siphon, decant the juice though a cheesecloth-lined fine-mesh strainer set over a funnel into a sterilized 1-gallon glass jug, discarding solids and any cloudy sediment. Seal the jug with its stopper and insert the air lock. Cover jug with a dark towel or set in a cabinet. Let sit at room temperature (ideally 70°–75°) for 3 weeks. Every 5 days, siphon cider through a fine-mesh strainer into a sterilized bowl. Rinse and resterilize the jug; return cider to jug and reseal.
Bottle the cider: Using a funnel, pour soda into 5 sterilized 12-oz. glass bottles, leaving any sediment behind and filling to within 1" of the top or lower. Cap bottles and let sit at room temperature (ideally 70°–75°) for at least 24 hours or up to 1 month. Chill cider before serving.