Make the goose: Preheat oven to 425°. Trim off goose wing tips, put into a small pot, and set aside. Prick skin all over with the tip of a paring knife. Rub bird, inside and out, with marjoram, thyme, and salt and pepper to taste. Stud apples and onions with cloves, then stuff into cavity of bird. Tie legs together with kitchen twine. Heat oil in a large heavy roasting pan over medium-high heat. Add goose and cook until browned all over, about 15 minutes. Set goose aside. Drain off fat from pan into a medium bowl and set aside. Return pan to medium-high heat. Add wine and 1 cup water and cook, scraping browned bits stuck to bottom of pan with a wooden spoon, for 2 minutes. Transfer goose, breast side up, to pan and roast until skin begins to get crisp, 35–45 minutes. Siphon off fat in pan with a bulb baster (add it to bowl with fat), leaving any pan juices in pan. Reduce oven temperature to 350° and continue roasting goose until juices run clear when pricked and skin is brown and crisp, 35–50 minutes more, siphoning off fat from pan once or twice as it roasts. Meanwhile, add stock to pot with wing tips and simmer over medium heat for 30 minutes. Strain stock, discarding solids, and set aside.
Make the roasted apples: Soak raisins in rum in a small bowl until plump, about 1 hour. Preheat oven to 350°. Core apples, leaving bottoms intact, and put into a medium baking dish, hole side up. Drain raisins, then stuff into apple cavities and top each with a piece of butter. Add 1 cup water to dish, cover with foil, and bake until apples are soft but still intact, 45–50 minutes. Reduce oven temperature to 200° and keep apples warm in oven.
Make the Viennese Potato Dumplings. Once cooked, transfer them with a slotted spoon to a warm plate, cover with foil, and keep warm in oven with apples.
Make the braised cabbage: Heat 3 tbsp. of the reserved goose fat (save remaining fat for another use) in a medium pot over medium-high heat. Add onions and cook, stirring often, until soft, 4–5 minutes. Add cabbage and apples and cook for 3–4 minutes. Stir in wine, orange juice, cranberries, sugar, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and salt and pepper to taste. Bring to a boil, reduce heat to medium-low, cover, and cook, stirring occasionally, until cabbage is very soft, 35–45 minutes. Keep warm over lowest heat.
Make the glazed chestnuts: Melt butter in a large skillet over medium heat. Add chestnuts and cook until heated through, 2–3 minutes. Add cream and honey and cook, stirring occasionally, until sauce is thick and chestnuts are glazed, 4–5 minutes. Cover skillet and keep warm over lowest heat.
Discard kitchen twine and apples and onions from cavity of goose. Put goose on a large serving platter and allow to rest for 15–20 minutes. Meanwhile, drain fat from pan, then set pan on top of stove and heat over medium-high heat. Add reserved stock, scraping browned bits stuck to bottom of pan, and boil until reduced by one-quarter, about 15 minutes. Season to taste with salt and pepper, then strain gravy into a warm gravy boat.
To serve: Fill goose cavity with the warm chestnuts. Put cabbage next to goose on platter. Arrange apples and dumplings around goose. Moisten goose and cabbage with some of the gravy. Garnish dumplings with parsley. Serve gravy on the side.